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Nevada Concealed Firearms Permit Qualification Course:
Vocabulary Terms and Legal Definitions


CURRENTLY UNDER CONSTRUCTION If you have questions or suggestions to add to this page please contact us and let us know.

This study guide pertains specifically to the Nevada Concealed Firearms Permit Qualification Course and is to be used a a study guide as well as a reference tool for all who have attended or are planning to attend this course of instruction.


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Nevada Concealed Weapons Firearms Qualification Course: Resource Guide

Study Guide Contents:

  • Vocabulary and Definitions

    • Firearms vocabulary
    • Legal definitions
    • Tactical definitions
  • Federal, State, and Local Laws

  • Firearms safety and weapons handling

    • General firearms safety
    • Storage, security and access in the home
    • Care and maintenance
    • Range safety, etiquette
    • Safe weapons handling
    • Administrative loading and unloading
    • Grip, Stance, Ready positions
    • Methods of carry and presentation from concealment
    • Marksmanship
      • The "3" Secrets
        • Sight alignment
        • Sight picture
        • Trigger control
    • Rules of engagement
      • Standard response: Controlled pair
      • Failure to stop
      • Designated head shot
    • Cover vs. concealment
    • Shooting positions
      • Single hand
      • Kneeling
    • Survival sequence



0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

2nd Amendment: - “A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.”


3 SECRETS (of marksmanship)


Sight Alignment - (Equal height, Equal light.) See: Sight Alignment Sight Picture Image
Sight Picture - is where you place your properly aligned sights on your intended target.
Trigger Control - is the manipulation of the trigger efficiently in order to not disturb your sight alignment, and sight picture.
(The individual elements of trigger control are: proper placement, slack out, a smooth press to a surprise break, trapping the trigger in recoil, re-acquisition of your sights and reset of the trigger.)


4 Universal Firearm Safety Rules:


  • Rule #1 - Treat all weapons as if they are loaded.
  • Rule #2 - Never let the muzzle cover anything you are not willing to destroy. (Muzzle discipline)
  • Rule #3 - Keep your finger off of the trigger until you are ready to shoot. (Trigger finger discipline)
  • Rule #4 - Know your target and what is in line with it. (Foreground and background)


    50% Rule - A quote attributed to Ken Hackathorn where he states : Under the stress of a lethal encounter your skill sets will decrease and you will only be half as good on the street, as your best day on the range.(You will not rise to the occasion, you will default to your most recent level of training.)


    Ability - (As referred to in justification of the use of Deadly Force)
    The ability of an attacker to do physical harm to you resulting in great bodily harm, or death.


    Administrative Loading - This the process of loading or unloading your firearm in preparation for training, storage, or defensive carry, as opposed to other loading procedures that are performed out of necessity.



    Balance of Speed and Accuracy - You should only shoot as fast as you can guarantee good hits (a hand-span sized group). This balance of speed and accuracy can depend upon distance, target size, target availability, environmental conditions, and stress. See also:ADAPT Target Diagnostic Handout


    Boyd’s OODA Loop - The concept was developed by military strategist and USAF Colonel John Boyd. OODA stands for Observe, Orient, Decide, and Act.


    OODA_Loop.pngBody's OODA Loop


    Bump Frisking - Bump frisking is when your body language gives away that you are wearing a gun, such as resting your hand on it, constantly adjusting your garments, or changing the swing of your arms or the gait of your stride.



    Castle Doctrine - (Castle Law or Defense of Habitation Law) - A law that designates a person’s home (or sometimes car, or anyplace they can legally be - hotel room, etc.) as a place in which the person has certain protections and immunities and may in certain circumstances use force, up to and including deadly force to defend against an intruder without becoming liable to prosecution. As opposed to a Duty to Retreat law. Nevada is a Castle Law state.


    Nevada Revised Statute: NRS 200.120 “Justifiable homicide” defined; no duty to retreat under certain circumstances.


    1. Justifiable homicide is the killing of a human being in necessary self-defense, or in defense of habitation, property or person, against one who manifestly intends or endeavors, by violence or surprise, to commit a felony, or against any person or persons who manifestly intend and endeavor, in a violent, riotous, tumultuous or surreptitious manner, to enter the habitation of another for the purpose of assaulting or offering personal violence to any person dwelling or being therein.


    2. A person is not required to retreat before using deadly force as provided in subsection 1 if the person:
    (a) Is not the original aggressor;
    (b) Has a right to be present at the location where deadly force is used; and
    (c) Is not actively engaged in conduct in furtherance of criminal activity at the time deadly force is used.
    [1911 C&P § 129; RL § 6394; NCL § 10076]—(NRS A 1983, 518; 2011, 265)


    Chamber Check/Magazine Check - An operation performed to ascertain the condition of a firearm; checking to ensure you are aware of whether or not the weapon has a round in the chamber and what capacity level the magazine is at. A proper Chamber Check/ Mag Check sequence begins with a visual or tactile check of the chamber, removing the magazine and checking that - either loading or unloading, rechecking the chamber and then rechecking the magazine.


    Clip - A Clip is a piece of metal that holds the rounds in a set arrangement to assist in loading, commonly found in use with revolvers, some handguns, and rifles, there are no moving parts on a clip.


    Clips_Magazines.pngClips and Magazines


    Color Code of Mental Awareness – A description of the level of attention or awareness you may apply to any situation in your daily life. One should always strive to remain in condition Yellow.


    White - Un-readiness, internal focus, unaware of your surroundings.
    Yellow - Relaxed and aware, a state of general anticipation, where the sudden appearance of a dangerous situation does not catch us off-guard.
    Orange - Specific Alert, being alert you identify a situation that could indicate a pre-assault indicator. Threat assessment, target identification, and consideration for the rules of engagement begin to take place.
    Red - Specific threat, the fight is now imminent. Decision to engage is based on your personal mental trigger, or line in the sand.
    Black - Immediate engagement, the fight is already on. (You may not know until you take the first round.


    Concealed weapon- means a weapon that is carried upon a person in such a manner as not to be discernible by ordinary observation Combat Mindset - We here at ADAPT describe Combat Mindset with the following quote:
    "Combat mindset is...The courage to fight. The desire to live. The strength to kill. The willingness to die."


    Controlled Pair/Double Tap- In a defensive shooting a controlled pair meaning two sighted shots are placed in the COM as the standard response to a threat. This is sometimes referred to as a Double Tap however by contrast the standard Double Tap usually consists of one sighted shot and the secondary shot followed closely behind while not observing the sights. To an experienced shooter who can efficiently manage recoil the second shot should strike relatively close to the first, however for a novice shooter the secondary shot is often fired too fast while the front sight of the weapon is still high due to muzzle flip thus resulting in the second shot going high and possibly off target.


    COM, Center of (Vital) Mass - We use the term Center of Mass, or COM, to describe the portion of a person’s torso from the top of the rib cage down to the diaphragm. We shoot to the COM because it is a large target area and therefore can be addressed quickly. This area houses a large number of vital organs including the lungs, heart, and major blood vessels. This area is also called the thoracic cavity. A sudden loss of air or blood pressure in the thoracic cavity usually results in shock and hopefully stops the threat.


    ADAPT_Target_Standard2a.jpgCOM: Defined by the "domed" shape area on our target.


    Cranio-ocular Cavity- This area is defined by the eye sockets and nasal cavity, it is a four inch band that wraps all the way around the head under the skull cap that allows for penetration of a handgun round into the central vital area of the head.


    Headbox_Target.JPG.jpgDefined by the "box" shape in the head on our target.


    DA / D.A. - DA is often the shorthand or abbreviation for "Double Action". See: Double Action below.


    Deadly Force - The amount of force that which when applied will likely result in death or great bodily injury. The three factors that need to be present to justify the use of lethal force are: ability, opportunity, and intent. Once those factors exist, we must also judge the situation - asking, is it imminent (happening soon) or immediate (happening now)?


    Designated Head Shot - A shot to the cranio-ocular cavity as the primary response because the standard response of a Controlled Pair is not available. Some of the reasons a Controlled pair may not be a viable option would be: The adversary is wearing visible body armor. The COM is obstructed by concealment or cover (perhaps a loved one in a hostage situation). Lastly and perhaps the most simple reasons is, it is the only shot you have.


    Double Action - Double action description needed.



    Emergency Reload - Reloading an empty weapon in the middle of a gunfight. The sign is an inactive trigger and the signal an empty magazine visible through the ejection port. (Or in the event of 2 clicks on a semi-automatic where it has failed to lock the slide open, or a revolver rotating through 2 chambers.) See also: Type 1 Malfunction.



    Failure to Stop - A threat that is not stopped by firing the standard response of a controlled pair to the COM. Instead, after the controlled pair, we assess the situation and find the threat still exists. In this situation, we follow up with a shot to the cranio-ocular cavity to stop the threat.


    Federal Firearms Laws:-


    National Firearms Act: 1934- First Major Gun Control Legislation. Eliminated private ownership of machine guns, "gadget" guns, and added hefty taxes for firearm sales and manufacturers.


    Federal Firearms Act: 1938 - Persons selling guns are required to obtain a Federal Firearms License and to maintain records of persons to whom firearms are sold. Also prohibited sales to felons.


    Gun Control Act of 1968 - Federal law enacted October 22, 1968: Inspired by the assassination of JFK, who was killed by a mail-order gun. Expanded licensing requirements, restricted handgun sales over state lines, prohibited selling firearms to certain categories of individuals
    • Convicted Felons
    • Addicted to controlled substances
    • Mentally impaired
    • Illegal residents
    • Dishonorably discharged from the military
    • Renounced citizenship
    • Misdemeanor crimes involving domestic violence (Lautenberg Amendment, named after its sponsor, Senator Frank Lautenberg) Also called: Domestic Violence Offender Gun Ban, which bans access to firearms by people convicted of crimes of domestic violence.


    Firing Side - The side of the body with the firearm on it. This includes all associated parts such as the hand on the firing side is the firing side hand and the other is the support hand. (As opposed to other terminology such as strong hand and weak hand.)


    Firing_Side.pngFiring Side: Classical Pistol Marksmanship Stance/Modified


    Grip - Hand placement on the stock of a firearm, establishing isometric tension; or the stock itself. Proper grip of a handgun starts with the web between the thumb and index finger of the firing hand high on the tang of the weapon, fingers on fingers and thumbs on thumbs; trigger finger straight on the reference points unless on sights and on target.


    Grips - The side plates of a handgun or additional sleeve added to the stock/frame to add aesthetics or functionality. Possibly to add or decrease sizing for comfort, friction, or accessories such as a grip mounted laser.


    Grip Safety - A safety mechanism, usually a lever built into the back-strap of the pistol grip, that automatically unlocks the trigger mechanism of a firearm as pressure is applied by the shooter's hand.


    Grip_Safety.pngGrip safety illustrated on Springfield Armory XD



    Holster - (n.)A holder used for carrying a firearm. (v.) Holster or Holstering: The act of placing your firearm in its holder.
    ADAPT is a big proponent of the "Serpa" holster as it has retention and encourages proper grip and trigger finger placement before the weapon is removed from the holster.


    Holster_Serpa.jpgBlackhawk Serpa Holster


    Visit our page on Recommended and Approved Holsters. Course Gear: Holsters



    Isometric Tension - A balance achieved through a forward push with the firing hand and a rearward pull with the support hand, essentially putting your weapon in a hand vice, which will help manage the forces of both muzzle flip and recoil.


    Isosceles Stance - This position is based on the body’s natural response to an unexpected threat - the untrained body will automatically react by crouching and pushing away from the threat. The body is squared off towards the target, assuming an aggressive athletic stance: weight on the balls of our feet and shoulders forward. Arms are extended towards the target so that the torso and two arms create an isosceles triangle



    Jam - One of the three reasons a gun can stop firing. Different than a malfunction, a jam is a broken gun. See: Squib load



    K TERM -



    L TERM -



    Malfunction - One of the three reasons a gun can stop firing. Different than a jam, a malfunction is a temporary problem that can be assessed and fixed fairly quickly to get the gun back in the fight.


    There are 3 types:


  • Type 1, or Failure To Fire.
    Sign and Signal: Click, no bang.
    Solution: Tap, Rack, Flip. Re-assess the situation and determine if follow up shots are necessary.


  • Type 2, or Brass High, Failure to Eject, "Stovepipe".
    Sign: A dead or inactive trigger.
    Signal: While moving you look at the ejection port to assess and note there is Brass trapped high in the ejection port. "Stovepipe"
    Solution: Tap, Rack, Flip. Re-assess the situation and determine if follow up shots are necessary.


  • Type 3, or Brass Low, Double Feed, Feed-way Stoppage, Failure to Extract
    Sign: A dead or inactive trigger.
    Signal: While moving you look at the ejection port to assess and note there is Brass trapped low in the ejection port, or a double feed in the chamber.
    Solution: Move, Identify, Clear (Lock slide, strip magazine out, rack, rack, rack, insert magazine, rack), Reload with Retention and Speed Reloading. Re-assess the situation and determine if follow up shots are necessary.


    Mash/Slap- A flaw in trigger control, caused by making the gun fire by slapping the trigger or quickly jerking the trigger back, instead of smooth (albeit rapid) controlled motion allowing it to fire and efficiently following the steps of proper trigger control. Shot patterns usually appear low and to the Support side on the target. See also: Trigger Diagnostics


    Magazine - A Magazine is a spring loaded box that feeds the ammunition into the chamber. It is not a clip. See also: Clips


    Muzzle - The opening at the end of the barrel of the firearm where the projectile leaves once fired.


    Muzzle Flip/Muzzle Rise - The upward rotation caused by recoil that occurs when a weapon is fired.


    Muzzle Consciousness / Muzzle Discipline - Awareness and control of the direction of your muzzle, attempting to ensure it is pointed in a safe direction at all times such as: (towards the ground/Sul, downrange, or upward, etc.)


    Muzzling - A firearm safely violation, whereby the armed individual is inadvertently pointing the muzzle of a firearm at someone/something that they do not intend to destroy.



    Negligent Discharge - The unintentional firing of a weapon caused by the carelessness and or lack of training/discipline of the shooter.



    O TERM -



    Pre-anticipation/Pre-ignition Push - A sight misalignment issue caused by the shooter forcing or pushing the muzzle downward just before the weapon fires in an attempt to compensate for muzzle flip and recoil. Shots in a consistently low yet centered grouping are often signs of pre-anticipation push. See also: Target diagnostics


    Presentation from the holster / Draw Stroke - A five count process by which the weapon is safely and efficiently presented from the holster to the target or a ready position. This is also sometimes referred to as the "draw stroke" or drawing the weapon.


    Presentation_Cycle.gifPresentation cycle.


    Re-holster_Cycle.gifRe-holstering cycle.


    Count 1: Support and Firing hand move to our reference points. Support hand on midsection and Firing hand above the weapon. Firing hand then drives down onto the weapon to establish a firm firing grip. (Trigger finger lays straight down the side of the holster, in line with the frame of the weapon.)(Any retention devices are also disengaged at this time.)
    Count 2: The firing hand pulls the weapon straight up from the holster. (Trigger finger remains straight along the side of the frame of the weapon.)
    Count 3: The firing hand rotates or pivots the weapon to where the muzzle is pointed downrange and the weapon is level with the ground and in line with the target. (Also called "Close Contact". See Close Contact above.) In this position safeties can be disengaged.
    Count 4: The support hand and firing hand begin to move towards one another sliding along the body until the hands touch and we begin to form a two handed grip and the weapon moves towards the target.
    Count 5: Is also called "Pointed in" we are on target, on sights, and on trigger ready to fire. Keeping the weapon level with the ground as we raise the sights to the level of our eyes and extending to the full presentation.


    Printing - When the outline of your weapon shows through a concealment garment. Wearing an appropriately fitting garment, a dark color or busy pattern also helps to break up this profile.



    Quick Check - Performed during the Survival sequence to ensure that there are no additional adversaries at in your immediate area.



    Recoil - The rearward push that occurs by the force of the projectile leaving the barrel when the weapon is fired. This also often results in muzzle flip/rise.


    Red Gun - Industry terminology for an injection molded plastic replica of a firearm with no moving parts, used for safety while training. (Comes in a variety of colors.)


    Red_Gun.pngASP "Glock" Style Redgun


    Revolver - A handgun with revolving chambers that, when the trigger is pulled, or the hammer is cocked back the cylinder rotates and aligns the chamber with the barrel. When the trigger is pressed completely to the rear the hammer falls and strikes the firing pin, firing the weapon.


    Revolver_Vocabulary.pngRevolver Diagram



    Second Amendment: - “A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.”


    Semi-automatic - One round is fired with each trigger press. When the the weapon is loaded and fired the slide cycles back ejecting the spent casing, the magazine lifts a new round into position and as the slide returns forward it chambers a new round in preparation to fire again.


    Semi_Automatic_Vocabulary.pngSemi-automatic Diagram


    Sights - Devices used for aiming a firearm. Most handguns have a front sight post and a rear sight notch that must be aligned.


    Sight Alignment - Is the proper alignment of the weapons sights in relation to the shooters eye and the target. Most weapons sights are considered to be aligned when the front sight post is centered in the rear sight notch. Referred to as equal height (the level line formed by the top edge of the front sight post and the tops of the rear sight) and equal light (the ambient light showing on the sides of the front post between the rear notch)
    See: Sight Alignment Sight Picture Image


    Sight Picture - Once the weapons sights are properly aligned with the shooters eye the sight picture is the image formed by seeing the sights lined up properly on the intended target area. (This does not apply to shots taken at farther distances where additional elements such as bullet drop, wind, elevation, and more are taken into consideration.)
    See: Sight Alignment Sight Picture Image


    Slide - The part of the weapon on a majority of semi-automatic pistols that moves during the operating cycle and generally houses the firing pin or striker and the extractor, and serves as the bolt. It is spring-loaded so that once it has moved to its rearmost position in the firing cycle, spring tension brings it back to the starting position chambering a fresh cartridge during the motion provided that the magazine is not empty. See also:Semi-automatic Diagram above.


    Slide Bite - A common injury caused by improper grip/thumb placement on a semi-automatic weapon. The web of a shooters hand or thumb is cut or abraded by the rearward motion of the slide.


    Slide Lock/Slide Release - The part of the weapon that when actuated allows for the slide of the weapon to be locked open for access to the ejection port or while performing administrative functions, when moved in the opposing direction it generally performs the opposite function and allows the slide to return forward thereby closing the ejection port.


    Snap Caps/Dummy rounds - Non firing cartridges. Some have the addition of spring-loaded "primers" used to test the mechanical functioning of a firearm or for dry practice.


    Snap_caps_image.pngSome examples of Snap caps available for most modern firearms.


    Speed Reload - Topping your weapon off by dropping or stripping a partially depleted magazine from the weapon to the ground and inserting a full one from the pocket or belt pouch.


    Stance - A static standing position used in training to establish the foundation of consistent, effective, defensive marksmanship. There are 2 popular stances in modern firearms training: Modified Weaver and Modern/Combat Isosceles.



    State Laws: Nevada Nevada State Constitution - Article 1, Section 11, Subsection1:
    Sec. 11. Right to keep and bear arms; civil power supreme.
    1. Every citizen has the right to keep and bear arms for security and defense, for lawful hunting and recreational use and for other lawful purposes.


    Nevada Revised Statues - Caveat: We have summarized these statutes into information. These laws can be found, un-abbreviated at: http://www.leg.state.nv.us


    NRS 200.010: Murder Defined - Murder is the unlawful killing of a human being: With malice aforethought, either express or implied;
    Caused by a controlled substance which was sold, given, traded or otherwise made available to a person.


    NRS 200.070: Involuntary Manslaughter Defined - Involuntary manslaughter is the killing of a human being, without any intent to do so, in the commission of an unlawful act, or a lawful act which probably might produce such a consequence in an unlawful manner.
    Where the involuntary killing occurs in the commission of an unlawful act, which, in its consequences, naturally tends to destroy the life of a human being, or is committed in the prosecution of a felonious intent, the offense is murder.
    Involuntary manslaughter does not include vehicular manslaughter


    NRS 200.120: Justifiable Homicide, No Duty To Retreat - Justifiable homicide is the killing of a human being in necessary self-defense, or in defense of home, property or person, against one who intends or endeavors, by violence or surprise, to commit a felony, or against any person or who attempts to enter the home of another for the purpose of assaulting or offering personal violence to any person dwelling or being therein.
    A person is not required to retreat before using deadly force if the person is not the original aggressor , had a right to be in the location , and is not actively involved in criminal activity at the time deadly force is used.


    NRS 200.130: Bare Fear versus Reasonable Fear - A bare fear of any of the offenses mentioned in NRS 200.120, to prevent which the homicide is alleged to have been committed, shall not be sufficient to justify the killing. It must appear that the circumstances were sufficient to excite the fears of a reasonable person and that the party killing really acted under the influence of those fears and not in a spirit of revenge.


    NRS 200.200: Killing In Self Defense - If a person kills another in self-defense, it must appear that:
    - The danger was so urgent and pressing that, in order to save the person’s own life, or to prevent the person from receiving great bodily harm, the killing of the other was absolutely necessary; and
    - The person killed was the assailant, or that the slayer had really, and in good faith, endeavored to decline any further struggle before the mortal blow was given.


    NRS 202.255: Setting trap or spring weapons - A person who sets a so-called trap, spring pistol, rifle, or other deadly weapon shall be punished:
    ¦ With a gross misdemeanor if no injury
    ¦ If non fatal injuries - Category B felony
    ¦ If fatal but not murder - Category B felony
    ¦ If fatal and murder - Category A felony
    This does not apply to government employees for the use of destroying moles, coyotes, predatory animals.


    NRS 202.257: Possession While Under The Influence - It is unlawful for a person who:
    ¦ Has a concentration of alcohol of 0.10 or more in his or her blood or breath; or
    ¦ Is under the influence of any controlled substance, or is under the combined influence of intoxicating liquor and a controlled substance, or any person who inhales, ingests, applies or otherwise uses any chemical, poison or organic solvent, or any compound or combination of any of these, to a degree which renders him or her incapable of safely exercising actual physical control of a firearm.
    This prohibition does not apply to the actual physical possession of a firearm by a person who was within the person’s personal residence and had the firearm in his or her possession solely for self-defense.
    - Any person who violates the provisions is guilty of a misdemeanor.
    - A firearm is subject to forfeiture only if, during the violation, the firearm is brandished , aimed or otherwise handled by the person in a manner which endangered others.


    NRS 202.265: Carrying on school property - A person shall not carry or possess (firearms and other dangerous weapons) while on the property of the Nevada System of Higher Education, a private or public school or child care facility,
    or while in a vehicle of a private or public school or child care facility.
    Unless a person receives written authorization from the governing body of the school.


    NRS 202.273: Metal penetrating bullets - It is unlawful to manufacture or sell any metal-penetrating bullet capable of being fired from a handgun.
    (= armor piercing rounds)


    NRS 202.275: Short barrel shotguns & rifles - A person who knowingly or willfully possesses, manufactures or disposes of any short-barreled rifle (less than 16”) or short-barreled shotgun (less than 18”) is guilty of a category D felony and shall be punished.


    NRS 202.277: Serial number removal - A person shall not intentionally change, alter, remove or obliterate the serial number upon any firearm.
    Serial numbers are usually located on the frame and sometimes may be on the slide as well as the chamber.


    NRS 202.280: Public firearm discharge - A person, whether under the influence or otherwise, who maliciously, wantonly or negligently discharges any pistol, gun or any other kind of firearm,
    in or upon any public street or thoroughfare, or in any theater, hall, store, hotel, saloon
    or any other place of public resort, or throws any deadly missile in a public place, although no injury results, is guilty of a misdemeanor.


    NRS 202.285: Discharging Firearms into Structures & Vehicles - A person who willfully and maliciously discharges a firearm at or into any house,
    room, apartment, tenement, shop, warehouse, store, mill, barn, stable, outhouse or other building, tent,
    vessel, aircraft, vehicle, vehicle trailer, semitrailer or house trailer, railroad locomotive, etc.
    is guilty of a misdemeanor if unoccupied and a B Felony if occupied.


    NRS 202.287: Discharging firearm within or from structure or vehicle - A person who is in, on or under a structure or vehicle and who maliciously or wantonly discharges or maliciously or wantonly causes to be discharged a firearm within or from the structure or vehicle:
    ¦ If the structure or vehicle is not within an area designated by city or county ordinance as a populated area for the purpose of prohibiting the discharge of weapons, is guilty of a misdemeanor.
    ¦ If the structure or vehicle is within an area designated by city or county ordinance as a populated area for the purpose of prohibiting the discharge of weapons, is guilty of a category B felony and shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for a minimum term of not less than 2 years and a maximum term of not more than 15 years, or by a fine of not more than $5,000, or by both fine and imprisonment.
    ¦ If a firearm is discharged within or out of any vehicle that is in motion or at rest and it cannot with reasonable certainty be ascertained in what county the crime was committed, the offender may be arrested and tried in any county through which the vehicle may have run on the trip during which the firearm was discharged.
    ¦ The provisions of this section do not apply to lawful hunters, peace officers, etc.


    NRS 202.290: Aiming firearm at human being - A person who willfully :
    ¦ Aims any gun, pistol, revolver or other firearm, whether loaded or not, at or toward any human being; or
    ¦ Discharges any firearm, air gun or other weapon,
    or throws any deadly missile in a public place or in any place where any person might be endangered thereby, although an injury does not result, is guilty of a gross misdemeanor.


    NRS 202.300: Use or possession of a firearm by a child - A child under the age of 18 years shall not handle or have in his or her possession, except while accompanied by his or her parent or guardian, any firearm of any kind for hunting or target practice. A child who violates this subsection commits a delinquent act and the court may order the detention of the child in the same manner as if the child had committed an act that would have been a felony if committed by an adult.
    A person who aids a child in violating this is guilty of a misdemeanor
    Does not apply to children 14 years or older who have a license to hunt or have permission to have the (not fully automatic) firearm from a guardian for competition, training, etc.


    NRS 202.310: Sale to minors - Any person in this state who sells or barters to a child who is under the age of 18 years, a pistol, revolver or a firearm capable of being concealed upon the person is guilty of a category B felony.


    NRS 202.320: Drawing Deadly Weapon in Threatening Manner - A person having, carrying or procuring from another person any dirk, dirk-knife, sword, sword cane, pistol, gun or other deadly weapon, who, in the presence of two or more persons, draws or exhibits any of such deadly weapons in a rude, angry or threatening manner not in necessary self-defense,
    or who in any manner unlawfully uses that weapon in any fight or quarrel, is guilty of a misdemeanor.
    A sheriff, deputy sheriff, marshal, constable or other peace officer shall not be held to answer for drawing or exhibiting any of the weapons mentioned therein while in the lawful discharge of his or her duties.


    NRS 202.350: Possession or use of dangerous weapon & concealed carry penalties- No Switchblade, metal knuckles, machine gun or silencer (unless authorized by federal law), nunchaku or trefoil.
    Penalties for violating the above or carrying concealed without a permit is a gross misdemeanor for first offense and subsequent offenses result in a category D felony. Carrying a concealed pistol or revolver without a permit is punishable as a category C felony, carrying a one to five year imprisonment and a possible fine up to $10,000.


    NRS 202.360: Firearm ownership prohibitions - A person can not own, or have in their possession, a firearm if they have been convicted of a felony (unless pardoned and the right to bear arms has been returned);
    is a fugitive from justice; is an unlawful user, or addicted to a controlled substance;
    has been adjudicated as mentally ill or has been committed to any mental health facility; or is unlawfully in the United States.
    Violation of these provisions will result in a category B felony.


    NRS 202.362: Sale or Disposal of Firearm or Ammunition - A person within the State shall not sell or otherwise dispose of any firearm or ammunition to another person if he or she has actual knowledge that the other person:
    ¦ Is a felon, unless pardoned without restriction to bear arms
    ¦ Is a fugitive from justice
    ¦ Is mentally ill
    ¦ Is illegally or unlawfully in the US
    Violators are guilty of a category B felony, which carries a punishment of imprisonment in the state prison for a minimum term of not less than 1 year and a maximum term of not more than 10 years, and may be further punished by a fine of not more than $10,000.
    This section does not apply to a person who sells or disposes of any firearm or ammunition to licensed importers, manufacturers, dealers, etc.


    NRS 202.3653: Definitions - "Concealed firearm” means a loaded or unloaded pistol, revolver or other firearm which is carried upon a person in such a manner as not to be discernible by ordinary observation.
    “Department” means the Department of Public Safety.
    “Permit” means a permit to carry a concealed firearm
    “Revolver” means a firearm that has a revolving cylinder with several chambers, which, by pulling the trigger or setting the hammer, are aligned with the barrel, placing the bullet in a position to be fired. The term includes, without limitation, a single or double derringer.
    “Semiautomatic firearm” means a firearm which: Uses the energy of the explosive in a fixed cartridge to extract a fixed cartridge and chamber a fresh cartridge with each single pull of the trigger; and requires the release of the trigger and another pull of the trigger for each successive shot.


    NRS 202.3657: Application & Eligibility for a permit - State residents apply for permits to the sheriff of the county you live in.
    You submit one application and one permit to carry all revolvers and semi-automatic firearms owned. You are not required to list all firearms owned however, the permit has to list all categories of firearms for which the permit is valid for. The Sheriff will issue a permit for revolvers, semi-automatics, or both.
    Permit eligibility:
    ¦ 21 years or older
    ¦ Is not prohibited from possessing a firearm (see 202.360)
    ¦ Demonstrate competency with their firearms by presenting a certificate that shows successful completion of a course in firearm safety approved by the sheriff or successful completion of a course in firearm safety offered by a federal, state or local law enforcement agency, community college, university or national organization that certifies instructors in firearm safety.
    ¦ Each course must include instruction in the use of revolvers, semi-automatic firearms or both, as applicable, and in the laws of this State relating to the use of a firearm.
    The sheriff shall deny an application or revoke a permit if the applicant/permittee:
    ¦ Has an outstanding warrant for his/her arrest
    ¦ Has been judicially declared incompetent or insane or has been admitted to a mental health facility in the last 5 years.
    ¦ Has habitually used intoxicating liquor or a controlled substance
    ¦ Has been convicted of a crime involving the use or threatened use of force or violence punishable as a misdemeanor in the last 3 years.
    ¦ Has been convicted of a felony
    ¦ Has been convicted of a crime involving domestic violence or stalking, or is currently subject to a restraining order for domestic violence
    ¦ Is currently on parole
    ¦ Has made a false statement on a permit or application for a permit
    ¦ Permit applications have to be completed and signed under oath and witnesses by an employee of the sheriff or a notary public.
    ¦ The application has to include:
    The name, address, place and date of birth, social security number, occupation and employer and any other names used by the applicant
    ? A complete set of fingerprints taken by the sheriff
    ? A front-view colored photograph
    ? Driver’s license number or identification card number
    ? Whether the application pertains to semiautomatic firearms or revolvers
    ? A nonrefundable fee not to exceed $60.


    NRS 202.366: Investigation of Applicant, Issuance, Denial & Expiration of Permit - Upon receipt of an application, the sheriff conducts an investigation of the applicant to determine if the applicant is eligible for a permit. In conducting the investigation, the sheriff forwards a complete set of fingerprints to the Central Repository for Nevada Records of Criminal History for submission to the FBI for a criminal history report.
    The investigation also must include a report from the National Instant Criminal Background Check System. (NICBCS instituted as a result of the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act)
    The Sheriff will institute a permit unless the applicant does not qualify.
    Sheriff has to grant or deny within 120 days. If the application is denied, the sheriff has to provide reasons. If granted, the sheriff will provide the permit.
    Permit expires 5 years after the date issued.


    NRS 202.3663: Judicial review of permit application denial - If an application is denied, the applicant can request judicial review of the denial by filing a petition in the district court of the county the application was made.


    NRS 202.3667: Permit carrying requirements & penalties - You must carry the permit, or a duplicate, together with proper identification whenever in actual possession of a concealed firearm and both must be presented if requested by a peace officer.
    Violations are subject to a civil penalty of $25


    NRS 202.367: Duplicate permits & penalties - Permittees must notify the sheriff within 30 days if their address changes or the permit is lost, stolen or destroyed.
    The sheriff will then issue a duplicate if the applicant signs under oath that the permit is lost or destroyed and pays $15.
    If the permit is subsequently found, the sheriff must be notified in writing and the duplicate returned within 10 days. Violators will be subject to a civil fee of $25.


    NRS 202.3673: Authorization, exceptions & penalties to concealed carry on public buildings: - Except as otherwise provided, you can carry concealed on public buildings except for airports, public schools or buildings with metal detectors and/or signs at public entrances declaring that firearms are not allowed.
    This does not apply to employees of public buildings or those with written authorization.
    Violators will be guilty of a misdemeanor.


    NRS 202.3677: Application for renewal of permit - If a permittee wishes to renew his or her permit, the permittee must:
    ¦ Complete and submit to the sheriff who issued the permit an application for renewal of the permit; and
    ¦ Undergo an investigation by the sheriff pursuant to NRS 202.366 to determine if the permittee is eligible for a permit.
    An application for the renewal of a permit must:
    ¦ Be completed and signed under oath by the applicant;
    ¦ Contain a statement that the applicant is eligible to receive a permit
    ¦ Be accompanied by a nonrefundable fee equal to the nonvolunteer rate charged by the Central Repository for Nevada Records of Criminal History and the Federal Bureau of Investigation to obtain the reports required and
    ¦ Be accompanied by a nonrefundable fee of $25.
    If a permittee fails to renew his or her permit on or before the date of expiration of the permit, the application for renewal must include an additional nonrefundable late fee of $15.
    No permit may be renewed pursuant to this section unless the permittee has demonstrated continued competence with revolvers, semiautomatic firearms or both, as applicable, by successfully completing a course prescribed by the sheriff renewing the permit.


    NRS 202.3678: Application for certification as qualified retired law enforcement officer - A retired law enforcement officer who is a resident of this State may apply, on a form prescribed by regulation of the Department, to the sheriff of the county in which he or she resides for any certification required to become a qualified retired law enforcement officer. Application forms for certification must be provided by the sheriff of each county upon request.
    A law enforcement agency in this State shall offer a retired law enforcement officer who retired from the law enforcement agency the opportunity to obtain the firearms qualification that is necessary to obtain the certification from the sheriff pursuant to subsection 1 at least twice per year at the same facility at which the law enforcement agency provides firearms training for its active law enforcement officers.
    The law enforcement agency may impose a nonrefundable fee in the amount necessary to pay the expenses for providing the firearms qualification.
    The sheriff shall provide the certification pursuant to subsection 1 to a retired law enforcement officer who submits a completed application and pays any fee required pursuant to this subsection if the sheriff determines that the officer meets the standards for training and qualifications.
    The sheriff may impose a nonrefundable fee in the amount necessary to pay the expenses in providing the certification.


    NRS 202.3687: Temporary permits - The provisions do not prohibit a sheriff from issuing a temporary permit. A temporary permit may include, but is not limited to, provisions specifying the period for which the permit is valid.
    Each sheriff who issues a permit shall provide such information concerning the permit and the person to whom it is issued to the Central Repository for Nevada Records of Criminal History.


    NRS 202.3688: Persons with permits to carry concealed issued from other states - A person who possesses a permit to carry a concealed firearm that was issued by a state included in the list prepared pursuant to NRS 202.3689 may carry a concealed firearm in this State in accordance with the requirements set forth in NRS 202.3653 to 202.369, inclusive.
    A person who possesses a permit to carry a concealed firearm that was issued by a state included in the list prepared pursuant to NRS 202.3689 may not carry a concealed firearm in this State if the person:
    ¦ Becomes a resident of this State; and
    ¦ Has not been issued a permit from the sheriff of the county in which he or she resides within 60 days after becoming a resident of this State.


    NRS 503.165: Carrying loaded shotguns or rifles in vehicles or on public roadways - It is unlawful to carry a loaded rifle or loaded shotgun in or on any vehicle which is standing on or along, or is being driven on or along, any public highway.
    A rifle or shotgun is loaded, for the purposes of this section, when there is an unexpended cartridge or shell in the firing chamber, but not when the only cartridges or shells are in the magazine.
    The provisions of this section do not apply to paraplegics, persons with one or both legs amputated or who have suffered a paralysis of one or both legs which severely impedes walking, or peace officers and members of the Armed Forces of this State or the United States while on duty or going to or returning from duty.


    Squib Load - A jam. Often referred to or observed as a “pop” instead of a “bang”. When the primer fires but fails to ignite the powder, or there is insufficient powder in the cartridge, resulting in an underpowered explosion where the projectile fails to leave the barrel. If you fire another round immediately behind the lodged round you run the risk of blowing up your weapon. Your best course of action in a gunfight is to transition to another weapon system, or immediately cease shooting and have the weapon repaired.


    Sul - Meaning “South” in Portuguese, it comes from classical sword fighting terminology, when the weapon is pointed downward. In the Sul position the support hand is flat against the midsection of the body parallel to the ground. The weapon in the firing hand is stacked on top of the support hand in such a way that the barrel or muzzle is in line with the knuckles of the support hand and perpendicular at a 90 degree angle to the ground. Properly done the muzzle should point a few inches in front of the toes directly between the legs.


    Sul_position.pngSul Ready Position


    Support Side - The side of the body opposite to the firearm.


    Survival Sequence - The sequence of motions we practice to train our bodies to continue the fight until the end while maintaining situational awareness. Failure to perform some sort of survival sequence can result in death. FINISH THE FIGHT!!!

    The steps are:

    1. Recognize the threat
    2. Move and engage appropriately (Stop the threat, even if only for the moment)
    3. Continue Moving to Cover or Concealment
    4. Come to a Ready (Environment dependent, Finger goes straight)
    5. Check your weapon (fingertip scan battery)
    6. Check your 6 (quick check your back)
    7. Confirm (Adversary has stopped the attack, failure to stop if needed)
    8. Scan and Breathe (Stepping & twist, Circular scan adversary in foreground)
    9. Press Check, Tactical Reload, Recover, Reset your safeties
    10. Check yourself (Health)(Physical inventory, touch all your extremities for signs of injury)
    11. Check your gear (Wealth)(Ammunition management, Push forward)
    12. Triage
    13. Communication- (Family, Witnesses, Law Enforcement, Remaining adversaries



    Tactics - We here at ADAPT like to define tactics with the following statement "The ability to observe, reason, and decide to move or act in a manner that decreases the likelihood of sustaining injury to yourself or others while maximizing the degree of success in defeating threats and surviving the encounter. To sum up, tactics is the art of staying alive."


    Tactical Reload - Performed after you have determined there are no immediate threats, it involves a chamber check to ensure your weapon is loaded and functional, checking to see if you have more ammunition, retaining any remaining ammunition in your weapon, and topping your weapon off; this helps your motor skills and gives your hands something to do which helps to prevent the onset of shock.


    Tang - The curved portion of the frame that may extend beyond the frame under the slide often used to protect the shooters hand from slide bites, and used to join the receiver to the stock on shotguns and rifles.


    Target Diagnostics - Examining your target and assessing where your rounds land to identify and correct training and marksmanship issues. See also:ADAPT Target Diagnostic Handout


    Three Secrets - See:3 Secrets


    Thoracic Cavity - Describes the portion of a person’s torso from the top of the rib cage down to the diaphragm. We shoot to the COM because it is a large target area and therefore can be addressed quickly. This area houses a large number of vital organs including the lungs, heart, and major blood vessels. This area is also called the COM. A sudden loss of air or blood pressure here usually results in shock and hopefully stops the threat.


    Trigger Control - Trigger control is the manipulation of the trigger efficiently in order to not disturb your sight alignment, and sight picture, thereby increasing your accuracy. Mentioned in the 3 Secrets of Marksmanship above.
    :The individual elements of trigger control are:


  • Proper placement (Placing your trigger finger on the surface of the trigger.)
  • Slack out (Removing the loose movement in the trigger also called: "Creep","Travel","Slop")
  • Smooth press to a surprise break (A smooth albeit rapid movement of the trigger straight back, allowing the weapon to fire, rather than jerking the trigger and "making" the weapon fire.
  • Trapping the trigger in recoil (Aiding in recoil management, and decreasing movement and unneeded actions.)
  • Reacquisition of your sights (Realigning your sights, and sight picture for additional follow up shots.)
  • Reset of the trigger (Releasing the trigger to it's reset point, preparing to fire again if needed.)


    Type 1, 2, or 3 - See:Malfunction



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    Weaver Stance - This stance was created by Southern California Deputy Sheriff Jack Weaver in the late 1950's. A bladed body position stance most commonly used by athletes and fighters. The firing side hand pushes the firearm forward, and the support hand pulls rearward developing isometric tension to help reduce the effects of muzzle flip and recoil. For additional reference you can research "Modern Technique of the Pistol" developed by Jeff Cooper.



    Weaver_Stance_Modified.png Weaver Stance



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